1. RESOURCES (MSVX.02.10a) The materials used to make all field expedient tools, weapons, and equipment will fall into one of the five categories.
e. Other materials.
f. Stone. Stone will make an excellent striking, puncturing or chopping tool, but will not hold a fine edge. Some stones, such as chert, flint, or obsidian can have very fine edges.
(1) Chipping & Flaking. To make a sharp-edge piece of stone, a chipping tool and flaking tool is needed. A chipping tool is a light, blunt-edged tool used to break off small pieces of stone. A flaking tool is a pointed tool used to break off thin, flattened pieces of stone. You can make a chipping tool from wood, bone, or metal, and a flaking tool from bone, antler tines, or soft iron.
BLADE TO HILT (HARDWOOD, ANTLER,
(2) Weapon heads. Certain stones will shatter under pressure when force is delivered upon it. When selecting a stone, test its hardness prior to use.
g. Bone. Bone has many uses. Hooks, shaft tips, scrapers, awls, sockets and handles are just a few ideas.
(1) Raw Bone. Raw bone must be shattered with a heavy object, such as a rock.
(2) Shaping & Sharpening. From the pieces of shattered bone, select a suitable pointed splinter. You can further shape and sharpen this splinter by rubbing it on a rough surfaced rock or metal file (i.e., from your multi-purpose knife).
h. Wood. Wood uses are unlimited. A knife blade can shape the wood into any desired shape.
(1) Types. Wood is classified into two general categories: hard and soft. Hardwood is preferred for all survival uses. To test the wood strength, press your fingernail into the grain of the wood. If a print is visible, the wood is generally soft.
(2) Sharpening. All wood points are sharpened to the side of the shaft. Wood is weakest at the center and will not hold a point.
(3) Fire hardening. Wood that is unseasoned or "green" wood should be fire hardened prior to use. To test this wood, gently scrape the bark with your thumbnail. If moisture or a greenish tint appears, it is considered green. Fire harden it by holding the point of the instrument a few inches above a bed of hot coals while slowly rotating it. Gradually the wood will begin to hiss and steam. Fire hardening makes the cells swell and the sap thicken, which makes the wood more resistant to abrasion and concussion. Avoid charring the wood. Fire harden only the tip until light brown.
(4) Coal burning. It is very difficult to carve depressions in wood. A depression in wood can be made by a process called coal-burning. Using a pair of thongs, place a hot coal over the area you want to hollow out, then blow on the embers with a thin, steady stream of air to keep them glowing. If available, use a thin reed or length of hollow bone to direct the stream of air. After the coals have burned down, scrape out the charred wood with a knife or sharp rock. Repeat this process with fresh sets of coals until the depression is at the desired depth.
i. Metal. Metal is the best material to make field expedient edged weapons. When properly designed, metal can fulfill a knife's three uses: puncture, slice or chop, and cut. First, select a suitable piece of metal, one that most resembles the desired end product. Depending on the size and original shape, you can obtain a point and cutting edge by rubbing the metal on a rough surfaced stone or metal file. If the metal is soft enough, you can hammer out one edge while the metal is cold. Use a suitable flat, hard surface as an anvil and a harder object of stone or metal as a hammer to hammer out the edge.
j. Other materials. Other materials are those items that can be found or may be on your body which can be used in the construction of field expedient tools.
(1) Load bearing equipment clips. The sliding retaining clip can be removed and sharpened to a point.
(2) Plastic. Plastic, Plexiglas, and glass from an aircraft can be shaped and sharpened into a point. Plastic can also be melted as a adhesive.
(3) Parachute cord. Parachute cord has unlimited uses for construction of field expedient tools.
(4) Pine pitch glue. Pine pitch glue, when properly made is like an epoxy. Locate and remove pitch from a pine tree. The highest quality pitch to use is fresh sap. The older (dry and hard) sap will work, but not as well. Melt the pitch on an elevated platform, such as a smooth rock. The pitch will run down the platform. Using a 6-8 inch stick, coat the stick in the pool of pitch until it resembles a large wooden match. To use the pitch stick as glue, light the pitch end of the stick, allowing it to drip on the area to be glued. Once sufficiently coated with pitch, sprinkle the activator over the pitch. An activator is finely ground egg shell or fire wood ash.
2. CLUBS. (MSVX.02.10c) Clubs are held and not thrown. As a field expedient weapon, the club does not protect you from enemy soldiers. It can, however, extend your area of defense beyond your fingertips. It also serves to increase the force of a blow without injuring yourself. There are two types of clubs: simple and weighted.
a. Simple club. A simple club is a staff or branch. It must be short enough for you to swing easily, but long and strong enough to damage whatever you hit. Its diameter should fit comfortably in the palm, but not be so thin as to break easily upon impact.
b. Weighted club. A weighted club is any simple club with a weight on one end. The weight may be a natural weight, such as a knot on the wood, or something added, such as a stone lashed to the club. If adding a weight to the club, construction is as follows:
(1) Find a stone that has a shape which will allow you to lash it securely to the club. A stone with a slight hourglass shape works well. If a suitably shaped stone cannot be found, you must fashion a groove or channel into the stone by a technique known as pecking. By repeatedly rapping the club stone with a smaller hard stone, you can get the desired shape.
(2) Find a piece of wood that is the right length. Hardwood is the best, if available. The length should feel comfortable in relation to the weight of the stone.
(3) (MSVX.02.10b) Lash the stone to the handle. There are two techniques for attaching the stone to the handle: forked and wrapped.
3. SURVIVAL STICKS. There are four types of survival sticks which are useful in a survival situation.
a. Digging stick. Finding an edible root is fairly easy, but most roots grow deep, and digging them out can be difficult unless one is prepared with a few good techniques. Skillfully applied, a simple device called the digging stick saves time and energy that is otherwise expended scrapping and grubbing with flat stones and fingers, which could lead to infection.
(1) Find a hardwood stick that is three feet long, one inch in diameter, and is straight as possible.
(2) Remove the bark from the stick.
(3) Form the tip of the stick into a chisel shape.
(4) Fire harden the chisel if using green wood.
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