b. Fishing Spear. If you are near shallow water (about waist deep) where fish are large and plentiful, you can spear them.
(1) Cut an 18-24" long straight hardwood sapling, fire harden if green.
(2) Sharpen one end of the sapling.
(3) Shave two green saplings to serve as prongs.
(4) Carve barbs on the prongs.
(5) Notch main staff to support prongs.
(6) Lash the prongs to the main staff.
(7) Prongs that do not easily flex under the weight of a finger need to be shaved and thinned, prior to lashing.
(8) To spear fish, find an area where fish either gather or where there is a fish run. Place the spear point into the water and slowly move it towards the fish. Then, with a sudden push, impale the fish on the stream bottom. Do not try to lift the fish with the spear. Hold the spear with one hand and grab and hold the fish with the other. Do not throw the spear as you will probably lose it.
c. Fish Gaff. A fish gaff is an effective method to procure fish from a concentrated area near the bank or to lift fish out of the water when hooked on a hand line. It is made from a single piece of wood and sharpened on the short end.
d. Chum Basket. The chum basket is a loosely woven basket that is filled with fish intestines and hung over the waters edge. Within a couple of days, maggots will form and drop into the water, causing the fish to concentrate in the area. The maggots can be used for bait on a hand line.
3. Fish Traps. A fish trap can be effective if you have a shallow stream and time to construct it. A basic fish trap is nothing more than a barricade of rocks or sticks across a stream with another barricade using a funnel-type entrance which fish can be driven into but have a difficult time finding their way out. Once fish are trapped between these two barricades they may be speared, clubbed, or grabbed. This can be very effective when certain types of fish are moving in large groups to spawn. This type of trap is very effective in catching fish. A door can be constructed at the mouth of the trap so that excess fish can be kept live until needed.
4. FISHING SET LINES. In a survival situation, fishing sets are means to catch fish while working on other tasks or weathering out a storm. Set lines are an effective method of fishing while conserving energy. Put them out over night with several baited hooks attached. Place them with the hooks either on the bottom or suspended off the bottom, until you have determined where the fish are feeding., a. Standard Set Lines.
b. Netting. A gill-net is most effective in still water, e.g., a lake (near the inlet and outlet are good locations) or back water in a large stream (for survival don't hesitate to block the stream). Nets can be constructed using the inner cords of parachute shroud lines. Place floats on top and weights on the bottom to keep the net vertical in the water. When ice is on a lake, the fish are inclined to stay deeper. The smaller the mesh, the smaller the fish you can catch, but a small nest will still entangle a large fish. A mesh of 3 inches is a good standard. A gill-net is very time consuming and requires allot of material to construct.
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