Some medical conditions require immediate evacuation pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, unconsciousness for unknown cause, diabetic coma, and progressively deteriorating conditions such as appendicitis. Immediate evacuation also is necessary if circumstances of weather or terrain are life-threatening. Certain other conditions require that evacuation be delayed until trained medical help arrives (unless it will be more than 24 hours) head injuries, neck and spinal fractures, heart attack, apoplexy (stroke), and internal injuries. Evacuation is required but not urgent for all other serious injuries and illnesses.
Walking downhill is less tiring than walking uphill, but it's a mixed blessing. Going down a trail, body weight drops roughly and abruptly on legs and feet. Toes are jammed forward. Jolts travel up the spine to jar the entire body. The result can be blisters and knee cartilage damage, sore toes and blackened nails, headaches, and back pain.
Spotting is a technique used to add a level of safety to climbing without a rope. A second man stands below and just outside of the climbers fall path and helps (spots) the climber to land safely if he should fall. Spotting is only applicable if the climber is not going above the spotters head on the rock. Beyond that height a roped climbing should be conducted. If an individual climbs beyond the effective range of the spotter(s), he has climbed TOO HIGH for his own safety. The duties of the spotter are to help prevent the falling climber from impacting the head and or spine, help the climber land feet first, and reduce the impact of a fall.
The spine is arched slightly away from the snow. This arch is critical it places the bulk of your weight on the axe head and on your toes or knees, the points that dig into the snow to force a stop. Pull up on the end of the shaft, which starts the arch and rolls weight toward the shoulder by the axe head. (Note the arch can be carried to excess by those unwilling to get their chest and face down into the snow.)
To rig machine guns, use a sling rope and tie a rerouted figure-eight around the spine of the front sight post. Then tie two evenly spaced fixed loops. Finally, anchor the sling rope to the buttstock of the machine gun. Additional tie downs may be necessary to prevent accidental disassembly of the weapon.
(b) If the casualty has any possibility of a spinal injury the Oregon Spine Splint must be used. Secure the splint to the casualty by use of the color-coded buckles. Experienced medical personal are recommended if spinal immobilization is necessary. casualties with possible spinal cord injuries. This position is formed by placing the heel of one foot on top of the toes of the other. This position will only be used for a casualty in confined spaces. Once the feet are positioned the feet straps must be secured. Start by bending the feet end of the SKED to form a plat form for the feet. Then loop the feet straps through the second grommets on each side.
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