Rock is classified by origin and mineral composition.
a. Igneous Rocks. Deep within the earth's crust and mantle, internal heat, friction and radioactive decay creates magmas (melts of silicate minerals) that solidify into igneous rocks upon cooling. When the cooling occurs at depth, under pressure, and over time, the minerals in the magma crystallize slowly and develop well, making coarse-grained plutonic rock. The magma may move upward, propelled by its own lower density, either melting and combining with the overlying layers or forcing them aside. This results in an intrusive rock. If the melt erupts onto the surface it cools rapidly and the minerals form little or no crystal matrix, creating a volcanic or extrusive rock.
(1) Plutonic or Intrusive Rocks. Slow crystallization from deeply buried magmas generally means good climbing, since the minerals formed are relatively large and interwoven into a solid matrix. Weathering develops protrusions of resistant minerals, which makes for either a rough-surfaced rock with excellent friction, or, if the resistant crystals are much larger than the surrounding matrix, a surface with numerous knobby holds. Pieces of foreign rock included in the plutonic body while it was rising and crystallizing, or clusters of segregated minerals, may weather differently than the main rock mass and form "chicken heads."
(a) Intrusions are named according to location and size. Large (100 square kilometers or larger) masses of plutonic rock are called "batholiths" and small ones "stocks." Most plutonic rock is in the granite family, differing only in the amounts of constituent minerals contained. A core of such batholiths is in every major mountain system in the world. In the Alps, Sierras, North Cascades, Rockies, Adirondacks, and most other ranges this core is at least partly exposed.
(b) Small plutonic intrusions are stocks, forced between sedimentary strata, and dikes, which cut across the strata. Many of these small intrusive bodies are quickly cooled and thus may look like extrusive rock.
(2) Volcanic or Extrusive Rocks. Explosive eruptions eject molten rock so quickly into the air that it hardens into loose aerated masses of fine crystals and uncrystallized glass (obsidian). When this ash consolidates while molten or after cooling, it is called "tuff," a weak rock that breaks down quickly and erodes easily. Quieter eruptions, where widespread lava flows from large fissures, produce basalt. Basaltic rocks are fine-grained and often sharp-edged.
(3) Jointing Rocks. In plutonic rocks, joints or cracks are caused by internal stresses such as contraction during cooling or expansion when overlying rock erodes or exfoliates. Some joints tend to follow a consistent pattern throughout an entire mountain and their existence can often be predicted. Therefore, when a ledge suddenly ends, the joint—and thus the ledge—may begin again around the corner. When molten rock extrudes onto the surface as a lava flow or intrudes into a cold surrounding mass as a dike or sill, the contraction from rapid cooling usually causes so much jointing that climbing can be extremely hazardous. Occasionally, this jointing is regular enough to create massed pillars with usable vertical cracks such as Devil's Tower in Wyoming.
b. Sedimentary Rocks. Sedimentary rocks are born high in the mountains, where erosion grinds down debris and moves it down to rivers for transportation to its final deposition in valleys, lakes, or oceans. As sediments accumulate, the bottom layers are solidified by pressure and by mineral cements precipitated from percolating groundwater. Gravel and boulders are transformed into conglomerates; sandy beaches into sandstone; beds of mud into mudstone or shale; and shell beds and coral reefs into limestone or dolomite.
(1) Though in general sedimentary rocks are much more friable than those cooled from molten magmas, pressure and cementing often produce solid rocks. In fact, by sealing up internal cracks cementing can result in flawless surfaces, especially in limestone.
(2) Most high mountain ranges have some sedimentary peaks. Ancient seafloor limestone can be found on the summits of the Himalayas and the Alps. The Canadian Rockies are almost exclusively limestone. With the exception of the Dolomites, in general sedimentary rocks do not offer high-angle climbing comparable to that of granite.
c. Metamorphic Rocks. These are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been altered physically and or chemically by the tremendous heat and pressures within the earth. After sediments are solidified, high heat and pressure can cause their minerals to recrystallize. The bedding planes (strata) may also be distorted by folding and squeezing. Shale changes to slate or schist, sandstone and conglomerate into quartzite, and limestone to marble. These changes may be minimal, only slightly altering the sediments, or extensive enough to produce gneiss, which is almost indistinguishable from igneous rock.
(1) Metamorphic rocks may have not only joints and bedding, but cleavage or foliation, a series of thinly spaced cracks caused by the pressures of folding. Because of this cleavage, lower grades of metamorphic rocks may be completely unsuitable for climbing because the rock is too rotten for safe movement.
(2) Higher degrees of metamorphism or metamorphism of the right rocks provide a solid climbing surface. The Shawangunks of New York are an excellent example of high-grade conglomerate quartzite, which offers world class climbing. The center of the Green Mountain anticline contains heavily metamorphosed schist, which also provides solid climbing.
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