Fronts occur when two air masses of different moisture and temperature contents meet. One of the indicators that a front is approaching is the progression of the clouds. The four types of fronts are warm, cold, occluded, and stationary.
a. Warm Front. A warm front occurs when warm air moves into and over a slower or stationary cold air mass. Because warm air is less dense, it will rise up and over the cooler air. The cloud types seen when a warm front approaches are cirrus, cirrostratus, nimbostratus (producing rain), and fog. Occasionally, cumulonimbus clouds will be seen during the summer months.
b. Cold Front. A cold front occurs when a cold air mass overtakes a slower or stationary warm air mass. Cold air, being more dense than warm air, will force the warm air up. Clouds observed will be cirrus, cumulus, and then cumulonimbus producing a short period of showers.
c. Occluded Front. Cold fronts generally move faster than warm fronts. The cold fronts eventually overtake warm fronts and the warm air becomes progressively lifted from the surface. The zone of division between cold air ahead and cold air behind is called a "cold occlusion." If the air behind the front is warmer than the air ahead, it is a warm occlusion. Most land areas experience more occlusions than other types of fronts. The cloud progression observed will be cirrus, cirrostratus, altostratus, and nimbostratus. Precipitation can be from light to heavy.
d. Stationary Front. A stationary front is a zone with no significant air movement. When a warm or cold front stops moving, it becomes a stationary front. Once this boundary begins forward motion, it once again becomes a warm or cold front. When crossing from one side of a stationary front to another, there is typically a noticeable temperature change and shift in wind direction. The weather is usually clear to partly cloudy along the stationary front.
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