Mountains are land forms that rise more than 500 meters above the surrounding plain and are characterized by steep slopes. Slopes commonly range from 4 to 45 degrees. Cliffs and precipices may be vertical or overhanging. Mountains may consist of an isolated peak, single ridges, glaciers, snowfields, compartments, or complex ranges extending for long distances and obstructing movement. Mountains usually favor the defense; however, attacks can succeed by using detailed planning, rehearsals, surprise, and well-led troops.

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