a. Bolts provide one of the most secure means of establishing protection. The rock should be inspected for evidence of crumbling, flaking, or cracking, and should be tested with a hammer. Emplacing a bolt with a hammer and a hand drill is a time-consuming and difficult process that requires drilling a hole in the rock deeper than the length of the bolt. This normally takes more than 20 minutes for one hole. Electric or even gas-powered drills can be used to greatly shorten drilling time. However, their size and weight can make them difficult to carry on the climbing route.
b. A hanger (carrier) and nut are placed on the bolt, and the bolt is inserted and then driven into the hole. A climber should never hammer on a bolt to test or "improve" it, since this permanently weakens it. Bolts should be used with carriers, carabiners, and runners.
c. When using bolts, the climber uses a piton hammer and hand drill with a masonry bit for drilling holes. Some versions are available in which the sleeve is hammered and turned into the rock (self-drilling), which bores the hole. Split bolts and expanding sleeves are common bolts used to secure hangers and carriers (Figure 5-17). Surgical tubing is useful in blowing dust out of the holes. Nail type bolts are emplaced by driving the nail with a hammer to expand the sleeve against the wall of the drilled hole. Safety glasses should always be worn when emplacing bolts.
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