Part C Acclimatization And Conditioning

Before undertaking extensive military operations in high mountainous elevations, as a soldier, you require a period of acclimatization. It is unrealistic to think that a freshly deployed, unacclimatized unit can perform well in action. This could be disastrous if the opposing force is acclimatized. Even the physically fit soldier experiences physiological and psychological degradation when thrust into high elevations. Time must be allocated to allow for acclimatization, conditioning and...

Part D Illness And Injury

To provide effective support during mountainous operations, certain medical aspects must be considered. Personnel may suffer injuries and illnesses that are not associated with other areas. Since unit's aid stations cannot normally be reached by vehicle, due to rough terrain, it may be necessary to use litter bearers to move casualties to the rear where they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations. Training must be accomplished with all litter bearers on evacuation techniques and...

Lesson Practical Exercise

The following items will test your understanding of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, review that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. During the mountainous exercise all members of the unit are required to demonstrate their abilities by identifying the basic climbing techniques and methods acquired...

Part C Equipment And Maintenance

Cta 900 Clothing

This is an overview of conventional military equipment and the latest items used by the climber. Movement. Before starting an operation, units must master techniques and equipment use. Movement over mountainous terrain cannot always be accomplished without special equipment. This equipment makes it possible for the military mountaineer to build installations and negotiate rock masses and ice areas quickly and safely. As a military climber, you will soon learn the value of specialized equipment,...

Part B Types Of Snaplinks

Snap Link Oval Mountain Piton

A snaplink is used to join equipment, rope, and people into a functioning system Figure 2-34 . They are made of steel, aluminum, or alloys loose with a hinged, spring-loaded gate on one side. There are different sizes, shapes, strengths, and metal. The heaviest and strongest snaplink is made of steel. The following information applies to all snaplinks The weakest part of a snaplink is the gate. The gate must be closed before applying a load. Locking pins should be checked to ensure that they...

Answer Key And Feedback

A. be aware that the basic elements for the avalanche phenomenon Accumulated snow and steep slopes can cause avalanches. An understanding of the basic elements is required in order to increase survival chances. b. move to the inside of bends and away from steep slopes and Care must be exercised when traveling through slopes that have glaciers or crevasses to avoid the possibility of injuries in the unit. c. the life cycle of a local storm or from the movement of a The success of the mission...

Part A General Techniques

Shoulder Movements Rock Climbing

All leaders operating in mountainous areas must be oriented and skilled in military mountaineering. The execution and success of the mission in mountainous operations depend on the level of individual and unit skill proficiency and conditioning. Only through practice and repetition do actions become reflexive and is the goal of high individual and unit proficiency realized. Personnel trained in mountain operations should form the cadre to train unit personnel. Before undertaking mountain...

Part B Belays

Stitch Plate Belay Operation

Belaying provides the necessary safety factor or tension, allowing the party to climb with a minimum of danger. When party climbing, two or three climbers are tied into a climbing rope. The use of a rope in party climbing is a hazard without belaying skills. It may be necessary to use one of several belay positions either with the body or mechanical belay device. Belaying involves a stationary man managing and controlling the rope that is tied to a load. Belaying is used to control descent on...

Part C Rappelling

Double Rope Rappel

Rappelling and down climbing are both means of descending the choice is based on mission, situation, equipment, terrain available anchors , weather, number of troops involved, and time and equipment available. The technique of rappelling involves the quick descent of a climber and the retrieval of the rope from the bottom. The selection of the rappel point depends on factors such as mission, cover, route, anchor points, and edge composition loose or jagged rocks . The anchor point should be...

Part B Climate

Weather Effects Soldiers Chart

The physiology and pathology of the human body is affected by the mountain climate. The human body is sensitive to weather change and differing climates. Analysis of mountain weather and how it is affected by mountain terrain shows that weather changes are subject to patterns but are less obvious in mountainous terrain than other areas. Conditions greatly change with altitude, latitude, and exposure to atmospheric winds and air masses. Mountain weather can be extremely erratic within a short...

L Equam Kkot

Paracord Suspension Training

The process of tying the knot involves a four-step procedure STEP 1 - Holding one working end in each hand, place the working end in the right hand over the one in the left hand. STEP 2 - Pull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand. STEP 3 - Place the working end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat STEP 2. STEP 4 - Dress the knot down and secure it with an overhand knot on each side of the square knot. Checkpoints. There are two interlocking bights....

Part A Climbing Ropes And Types Of Knots

Rope Knots Guide

No one rope is ideal for all applications. The commander must determine the situation in which ropes may be used such as urban, rock, ice, climbing, rappelling, rope installations and in what type of terrain and climate. Rope selection is affected by the following factors Fall factor measures the severity of a fall. This is calculated by dividing the length of a fall by the amount of rope paid out at the belay point. The higher the fall factor, the greater the amount of force generated. Rope...

Part D Types Of Pitons And Piton Hammers

Rurps Climbing

A piton is a metal pin that is hammered into a crack in the rock. It is described by its thickness, design, and length and provides a secure anchor for a rope that may be attached by a snaplink Figure 2-38 . There are four configurations used by the U.S. Army. They are the vertical, horizontal, wafer, and angle, which are made of either malleable or hardened steel, and alloys. The strength of the piton is determined more by its placement rather than its rated tensile strength. There are two...

Grading And Certification Instructions

Examination This subcourse has a multiple-choice test covering the material contained in the three lessons. After studying the lessons and working through the practice exercises, complete the examination. A score of 70 or above is passing. Six credit hours will be awarded for successful completion of this examination. When used in this publication he, him, his, and men represent both the masculine and feminine genders, unless otherwise stated.