When 1.9-cm (3/4-inch) pipe rungs are used, the rungs are again spaced 30 cm (12 inches) apart in the ladder, but uprights are spaced only 30 cm (12 inches) apart because of the weaker pipe used.
The rungs may be fastened in place by two different methods.
• In one method, a hole 1.1 cm (.4 inch) in diameter is drilled at each end of each pipe rung, and .9-cm (3/8-inch) wire rope uprights are threaded through the holes. To hold each rung in place, a .9-cm (3/8-inch) wire clip is fastened around the wire rope upright at each end of each rung after the rung is in final position.
• Another method is to cut the pipe rungs 30 cm (12 inches) long and weld the U-bolt of a .9-cm (3/8-inch) wire rope clip against each end. The rungs are 30 cm (12 inches) apart on .9-cm (3/8-inch) wire rope uprights. The nuts and the base of the wire rope clips are placed on the U-bolts, and the nuts are tightened to hold the rungs in place.
Wire Rope Ladder With Wire Rope Rungs. To make a wire rope ladder (Figure 28) with wire rope rungs, the .9-cm (3/8-inch) wire rope uprights are laid out on the ground. The first length is laid out in a series of U-shaped bends. The second length is laid out with the U-shaped bends opposing those in the first series and the horizontal rung portions overlapping. A .9-cm (3/8-inch) wire rope clip is fastened around the overlapping rung portions at each end of each rung to hold them firm.
• Fiber Rope Ladder With Fiber Rope Rungs. Fiber rope ladders with fiber rope rungs (Figure 2-9) can be made using two or three uprights. When three uprights are used, a loop is made in the center upright at the position for each rung. The two outside uprights are spaced 50 cm (20 inches) apart. A loop and single splice hold each end of each rung to the outside upright. A loop in the center of the rung passes through the loop in the center upright. If only two uprights are used, the rungs are held in place by a loop and single splice at each upright. The two uprights must be closer together with shorter rungs to stiffen the ladder. Ladders of either type are flexible and difficult to climb.
Rope Ladder With Wood Rungs. Rope ladders with wood rungs (Figure 2-9) can be made using finished lumber or native material.
To use native material, rungs of 5-cm (2-inch) diameter material are cut about 40 cm (16 inches) long. The ends of each rung are notched, and the rung fastened to the rope are held upright with a clove hitch. The rungs are 30 cm (12 inches) apart from center to center. A piece of seizing wire twisted around the back of the clove hitch makes it hold better, but the wire must be placed where it will not snag clothing and equipment.
If rungs are made of finished lumber, the rungs are cut to size, and a 1.9-cm (3/4-inch) hole is drilled at each end. Hardwood (oak) lumber is best for this purpose. A .64-cm by 6.3-cm (1/4- by 2 1/2-inch) carriage bolt is placed horizontally through each end near the vertical hole to prevent splitting. An overhand knot is tied in the upright to support the rung, and the upright is threaded through the 1.9-cm (3/4-inch) hole in the rung. A second overhand knot is tied in the upright before threading it through the next rung. Rungs should be spaced 30 cm (12 inches) apart.
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