Lesson Practical Exercise

The following items will test your understanding of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you have completed the exercise, check your answers with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, review that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. During a mountaineering exercise your unit mission is to function effectively, and to utilize proper equipment and methods when constructing alpine paths. 1. Your unit...

Practice Exercise Answer Key And Feedback

Item Correct Answer and Feedback 1. d. try to get the victim s out within one hour since that is the average survival limit. Avalanche rescues are critical since the surviving victim s are depending on the rescue team. As time moves on, the chance for living decreases--speed and time are critical factors in avalanche rescues. 2. a. brief all personnel involved by letting them know that testing by means of explosives will be conducted and all men must be belayed while working. This action is...

Part C Walkways

What Rope And Cable Required Sag

A suspended walkway consists of a treadway of either native or finished material suspended by four wire ropes Figure 2-10 . The two lower ropes support the treadway. The two ropes at the higher level provide handlines and are reconnected to the lower ropes by vertical stanchions. The wire ropes are rigged and anchored so that the center of the ropes sag below a straight line between the ends. This sag prevents the tension in the rope from becoming great enough to snap the rope under normal...

Part B Avalanches

Three Types Avalanches

The two main causes of avalanches are the weight of large amounts of accumulated snow, and steep slopes that exceed the cohesive forces within the snowpack or between the snowpack and ground. These two elements combined can produce an avalanche. Terrain. Ground surface conditions have considerable effect upon snow in contact. A broken, serrated, or boulder-strewn surface provides a good anchor for a snowpack. In other conditions, this surface can provide dangerous stress concentrations in the...

Part E Movement On Snow And

Pickets Flukes Glacier Anchor

When travelling over snow, and skis or snowshoes are not being used, the principles of movement over rocky terrain apply. No special techniques are required when the snow lies over a foundation of other than glacier ice and when the terrain is not steep. The success of the operation depends on proper route selection and on using procedures that reduce exertion. Movement on snow includes but is not limited to walking on low-angle slopes snow climbing on steeper angles descending security on snow...

Part D Avalanche Rescue

Method Snow Probing Avalanche Rescue

During avalanche rescues, military operations differ slightly from civilian operations due to the number of personnel involved in the climbing parties, and the immediate available personnel left at the avalanche site. In civilian rescues only one or two surviving personnel are available due to small climbing parties. Therefore, the odds of recovering a live victim in military operations are higher than those in a civilian rescue attempt. Before undertaking glacial operations, it is mandatory to...

Part A Operations On Alpine Paths And Handlines

Fixed alpine paths are constructed when the unit will remain in one area for a long time, or to assist troops in traversing rugged mountain terrain, ascending or descending steep mountain slopes, and carrying combat equipment or supply loads up to 50 pounds. Paths should be constructed to allow movement in both directions at the same time, and so that casualties can be evacuated over them on litters. Description. A fixed alpine path can include steps cut into the ground or into the ice or snow,...

Figure Standard Iron Pipe Stanchion

Pipe Stanchion

Wood posts can be used as stanchions Figure 2-4 for handlines, or standing timber may be used if the path is through natural growth. Wood post stanchions should be 6 to 8 cm 2 to 3 inches in diameter and should be notched near the top so rope handlines can be tied to them with a clove hitch. A clove hitch is tied in the center of the rope and slipped over the end of the stanchion. Rock Anchors. Rock anchors are used to hold ends of handlines or other cables. Where...

Bottom of Ladder

Wood Rungs

When 1.9-cm 3 4-inch pipe rungs are used, the rungs are again spaced 30 cm 12 inches apart in the ladder, but uprights are spaced only 30 cm 12 inches apart because of the weaker pipe used. The rungs may be fastened in place by two different methods. In one method, a hole 1.1 cm .4 inch in diameter is drilled at each end of each pipe rung, and .9-cm 3 8-inch wire rope uprights are threaded through the holes. To hold each rung in place, a .9-cm 3 8-inch wire clip is fastened around the wire rope...

Part B Steps And Ladders

Hanging Ladders

Steep and moderate slopes covered with ice or snow make climbing difficult. Since there is less oxygen at high altitudes, men tire rapidly. Handlines can assist but do not solve the problem. The following procedures should be observed when building steps Steps cut in the slope Figure 2-4 can assist climbers. The rise of the step should not exceed 20 to 25 cm 8 to 10 inches . On gradual slopes a single 20-cm 8-inch step can be cut every few meters, and the surface between steps can be leveled....