Min Mountaineering Knots

Class I - End of the Rope Knots

1 ) Square Knot. Used to tie ends of two ropes of equal diameter together. It should be secured by overhand knots on both sides of the square knot.

SQUARE KNOT

[Double Fisherman's Knot. It is a self-locking knot used for tying two ropes of equal diameter together. It can be tightened beyond untying.

DOUBLE FISHERMAN'S KNOT

) Water/Tape Knot. Used to secure webbing or tape runners. It is constructed by tying an overhand knot (without twists) in one end of the tape, and threading the other end of the tape through the knot from the opposite direction. After the knot is dressed down, each pigtail should be a minimum of two inches long.

Nylon Hoisting SlingDouble Sheet Bend
4 )Double Sheet Bend. Used to tie the ends of two or more ropes of equal or unequal diameter together.
Types Rope Knots Double Sheet Bend
SHEET BEND

b. Class II - Anchor Knots

1 )Bowline. Used to tie a fixed loop in the end of a rope. This knot is always tied with the pigtail on the inside and secured with an overhand knot.

Mountaineering
BOWLINE

ound Turn with Two Half Hitches or a Bowline. A loop which runs around an object in such a manner as to provide 360 degree contact and may be used to distribute the load over a small diameter anchor. It will be secured with two half hitches or a bowline.

Mountaineering Knots

ROUND TURN AND A BOWLINE

ROUND TURN AND A BOWLINE

Clove Hitch. This knot is an adjustable hitch. It could be considered a middle-of-

the-rope anchor knot at the end-of-the-rope when used in conjunction with a bowline or round turn and two half hitches.

]Around-the-obj ect Clove Hitch.

Bowline Knot Around Object
AROUND THE OBJECT CLOVE HITCH

]Over-the-object Clove Hitch.

]Over-the-object Clove Hitch.

Rope Knots Guide
OVER THE OBJECT CLOVE HITCH Q Class III - Middle-of-the-rope

^B Figure-of-Eight-Loop. This is a strong knot that can be readily untied after being under load.

FIGURE 8 LOOP

Figure Eight Loop Knot

FIGURE 8 LOOP

Double Figure of Eight Loop. The double Figure of Eight Loop is a strong knot and the double loop reduces the wear and strength loss from the rope bending around the carabiner by splitting the load between the two loops.

DOUBLE FIGURE 8 LOOP

¡Two Loop Bowline. This knot can be used to construct a self-equalizing belay or to tie the middle person in on three people on a rope.

Self Equalizing Bowline

TWO LOOP BOWLINE

TWO LOOP BOWLINE

d. Class IV - Special Knots

1 )Prusik Knot. This knot functions by introducing friction that can be alternately set and released. For best results, tie the knot with a smaller diameter cord on a larger diameter cord. If slippage occurs, more wraps maybe used.

a)Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik. This knot is created with an endless loop also known as a Prusik Cord. Do not tie this knot with tape due to less friction.

End Knots For CordsRope Knots Guide

b )End-of-the-Rope Prusik. This knot is always secured with a bowline. Do not tie this knot with tape due to less friction.

French Prusik Knot

END OF THE LINE PRUSIK

c)French Prusik. This can be constructed with a Prusik Cord or a single strand of cord with figure-of-eight loops on each end.

FRENCH PRUSIK

2 )Retraced Figure of Eight. Used to tie the end of the climbing rope into a harness or swammi wrap. The pigtail may or may not be secured with an overhand.

French Prusik KnotRetraced Figure Knot For DummiesEnd The Line PrusikHow Tie Hasty Rope Climbing Harness

3 )Directional Figure-Of-Eight. When tied and tensioned is applied to the standing and running ends of the rope, the knot will not pull apart. The loop will point toward the direction of pull.

DIRECTIONAL FIGURE 8

DSlip Figure 8. This knot is used for retrievable anchors and fixed rope installations for the ease of untying the knot.

SLIP FIGURE 8

5 )Kliemheist. This is a friction knot.

Friction KnotFigure Knot Rock Climbing
OVERHAND

7 )Munter Hitch. This is a simple hitch in the rope that is clipped into a carabiner to put friction on the line.

Mariners Hitch With RopeClimbing Rope Knots Guide

8 ) Timber Hitch. A Timber Hitch is used to fix a rope to a pole or equivalent for hoisting or towing purposes. It has the capability of casting off easily.

TIMBER HITCH

9 )Mariner's I under load.

Mariner Hitch Tied With Webbing

MARINER'S HITCH

0 )Kr a gur Knot. This friction knot is used to prevent unnecessary slippage when tied onto a rope of the same diameter.

KRÀGUR KNOT

appel Seat. This is used as an expedient support harness for rappelling, crossing rope bridges, etc. It is constructed as follows:

«^Center the sling rope on the left hip.

CENTER OF ROPE

Tie Rope Around Waist

b )Wrap the sling rope around the waist and tie at least one half hitch around itself

Mountaineering Harness Tying

c)Bring the running ends down through the legs, up over the buttocks, and over the original waist wrap, down between the waist wrap and the waist, and over itself, forming a bight. Cinch this up tightly.

)Now tie a square knot with two overhand knots on the left hip ensuring that the overhand knots encompass all the wraps.

Climbing Knots Swiss Seat

BeBTuck any excess rope into a pocket. B^M Bowline on a coil. Used by the first and last men on a climbing rope to tie into the e)

rope. An overhand knot is used behind the knot. It distributes the force of a fall over a larger area of a climber's waist and is preferable to a single bowline around the waist. The bowline on a coil can also be used to take up excess rope. The bowline on a coil should have 4-6 wraps around the waist.

Bowline CoilClimbing Rope Knots GuideClimbing Rope Knots GuideSwami Belt

B Swami wrap (Swami belt). The swami wrap (four to six wraps of rope or nylon webbing tied around the waist) popular with rock climbers who wanted to increase the working length of their climbing ropes. It also offers some improvement over the bowline on the coil in distributing the forces sustained in a fall over a larger area of the midsection of the body, but does not eliminate the problem of suffocation when hanging. The Swami wrap is constructed as follows:

WflTake a sling rope and find the middle.

b^Bplace the middle of the sling rope in the small of your back.

ring both pigtails to the front and continue to wrap around your body until both pigtails are about 15-20 inches long.

Tie the pigtails on the left side with a square knot and two overhand knots.

— . ■■■■. ■■■.■■"■ . |Y ■ ■ ■ v • ■ .-. . .v." .. /.y ■ ; ■ v. v."..

— . ■■■■. ■■■.■■"■ . |Y ■ ■ ■ v • ■ .-. . .v." .. /.y ■ ; ■ v. v."..

Swami Wrap Knot

"':":■:: :■:":': ¿V: .:■:■:■:■ j-.-:-:-:: ■ :■:■::■ ■ ::■:■: ■ .■:■:■:■:■ ■:■::: ::::

SWAMMI WRAP

"':":■:: :■:":': ¿V: .:■:■:■:■ j-.-:-:-:: ■ :■:■::■ ■ ::■:■: ■ .■:■:■:■:■ ■:■::: ::::

SWAMMI WRAP

PjThree Loop Bowline. This knot will provide three bights, each of which can be adjusted against the others.

Three Loop Bowline
THREE LOOP BOWLINE

TRANSITION: Now that we have discussed the different types of knots and their classifications, let us now talk about the relative strength of the knots.

7. (5 Min) KNOT STRENGTH. Rope, cordage and webbing is strongest when loaded in a straight line. When bending a rope or web to create a knot, the strength of the rope is reduced. All knots should be dressed properly for maximum effective use.

KNOT

RELATIVE STRENGTH OF KNOT

No Knot

100%

Figure 8

75-80%

Bowline

70-75%

Double Bowline

70-75%

Double Fisherman

65-70%

Water Tape Knot

60-70%

Clove Hitch

60-65%

Overhand Knot

60-65%

Square Knot

45%

TRANSITION: Now that we have discussed the relative strength of knots, let's discuss the criteria of the knot test.

(5 Min) KNOT TESTING TIME LIMIT. The following times must be met to pass the knot tying portion of this course.

KNOT

UNIT OPERATIONS

SML. ACC TIME LIMIT

TIME LIMIT

(BLINDFOLDED)

Square knot

60 Seconds

30 Seconds

Double Fisherman's Knot

60 Seconds

30 Seconds

Water/Tape Knot

60 Seconds

30 Seconds

Round Turn and a Bowline

60 Seconds

30 Seconds

Round Turn and Two Half

60 Seconds

30 Seconds

Hitches

Clove Hitch (around the object)

60 Seconds

30 Seconds

Munter Hitch

60 Seconds

30 Seconds

Slip Figure 8

60 Seconds

30 Seconds

Figure 8 Loop

60 Seconds

30 Seconds

Directional Figure 8

60 Seconds

30 Seconds

End of the Line Prusik

90 Seconds

45 Seconds

Retrace Figure 8

90 Seconds

45 Seconds

Rappel (Swiss) Seat

2 Minutes

60 Seconds

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Explain the knot, demonstrate, and then have the students tie the knot. Instruct the students not to clear the knot until they have been checked by an instructor.

TRANSITION: Now that we have discussed rope terminology, considerations for care and maintenance, coiling of the ropes, mountaineering knots and their strengths are there any questions? If you have none for me, then I have some for you.

PRACTICE (CONC)

a. Students will practice proper rope management.

+3 0

Responses

  • asmeret teodros
    How to tie middle person into climbing rope?
    7 years ago
  • Harley
    How to tie a pigtail ona rope?
    7 years ago
  • Minna Set
    Which knot is stronger: water tape or double fishermans?
    7 years ago
  • Primrose Brownlock
    How to tie a mariners hitch with webbing?
    6 years ago
  • yusef
    How to tie mountaineering knots?
    6 years ago
  • thomas mehler
    How to tie a swiss seat?
    6 years ago
  • segan
    How To Make A Swiss Seat Rope Harness?
    6 years ago
  • Bisirat
    How to tie a hasty harness?
    6 years ago
  • Martino
    How to clip into a carabiner for rapelling?
    5 years ago
  • cosimo
    How to tie figure of 8 around waist?
    10 months ago

Post a comment