9 Route Reconnaissance. The route is visually inspected for steepness, soil composition, rock outcroppings, ice and snow patches, and availability of anchor's. Based on this reconnaissance, the climbers construct a climbing rack best suited to the proposed climbing route.
9 Normal belay procedures are used. The belayer establishes the bottom of the climb using available anchors supplemented by a 5 point gripfast. He will tie into the end of the rope and into the gripfast.
9 Once the belay is established, the lead climber ties in and begins his climb. The climber will cut steps with the adze of his earth ax for foot holds. As soon as possible after beginning the climb, the lead attempts to place an intermediate anchor. Depending on the composition of the face being climbed, this anchor may be an ice or rock piton, a chock, camming device, or a specialized steep earth anchor. The climber must remember that any protection placed in steep earth has questionable holding strength. The climber uses his ax for a hand hold and uses his free hand for balance or uses an alpine hammer or ice hammer for his second hand tool.
d The lead climber digs a belay platform at the end of his rope if required. He then plants his gripfast, ties into it, and sits on it for additional security. If possible, he establishes an anchor using pitons, chocks, camming devices, etc. The lead climber then belays up the #2 climber.
9 The #2 climber climbs towards the belay stance, collecting all unused protection as discussed in PARTY CLIMBING.
3 This procedure continues until one climber reaches the top, establishes a belay stance with an appropriate anchor, and top ropes his companion up.
TRANSITION: Now that we covered climbing procedures, are there any questions? Let's now talk about the use of the grapnel.
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