ascending and descending moderate terrain with experienced troops. Since friction burns are a real danger, the arms must be covered and gloves should be worn. This method can be used in both the standing or sitting stance. The following techniques apply for the body belay:
(1) The belayer should position himself so that his legs are braced straight into the direction of pull.
(2) Place the rope around the belayer's back so that the rope rests on top of the hips while he grasps the rope tightly with both hands.
(3) To pay out rope, slide the running end of the rope (nearest the climber) forward with a guide hand and clasps both strands of the rope above the brake hand.
(4) Allow the brake hand to slide back down to its original position and repeat the process.
(5) To brake the climber, the brake hand wraps the rope around the waist. A twist of rope can be taken around the brake arm to increase friction.
b. Redirect Belay Method. When belays are established away from the base of a climb, the rope runs at a low angle from the belayer to the first piece of pro on the rock. From here the rope changes direction and goes abruptly upward. If the leader should fall, the rope goes taut and tries to run in a straight line from the belayer to the top piece of pro. This effect puts great strain on the bottom piece of pro. If it pulls out, the line of pro could be yanked out one after another from the bottom up. This is known as the "Zipper Effect". The zipper effect can be prevented by moving the belay stance within 10 feet of the base of the climb or by creating opposition protection.
(Q) Place one chock in the crack so it can take a downward pull.
(2) Below that emplacement, place another chock with an upward pull.
(3) Clip a carabiner into each chock wire / cord.
(5) Create a loop in the slack of the runner near the upward direction of pull chock by tying an overhand knot and attach a carabiner into the loop.
(6) Clip the climbing rope into this carabiner in the normal fashion.
OPPOSITION PROTECTION WITHOUT THE OVERHAND KNOT
Q) Place one chock in the crack so it can take a downward pull.
2) Below that emplacement, place another chock with an upward pull.
3) Clip a carabiner into each chock wire / cord.
4) Clip one end of a large runner into the bottom piece of protection.
5) Run the other end up to the second piece of protection and tie a clove hitch through the carabiner ensuring there is tension between the pieces to prevent the pulling out of either piece.
6) The running end of the runner may now be attached to the rope with a carabiner as a normal piece of protection.
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