G Evaluation

a MLC - You will be tested later in the course by written and performance evaluations on this period of instruction.

b ACC - You will be tested later in the course by written on this period of instruction and by performance evaluations during the cliff assault.

d SMO - You will be tested by a verbal and performance evaluation on T- 11.

TRANSITION: Are there any questions over the purpose, learning objectives, how the class will be taught, or how you will be evaluated? First, let's discuss why rappelling is dangerous and site selection.

Q (2 Min) INHERENT DANGER OF RAPPELLING. Rappelling is inherently dangerous because rappellers rely totally on the equipment.

9 To ensure a safe training evolution, two ropes will be utilized at MWTC.

b All the rappels taught at MWTC can be completed with a single rope if the situation arises.

3 If utilizing a one-rope system with the carabiner wrap, the rope will be attached to the carabiner with two wraps vice one.

TRANSITION: Are there any questions over the inherent dangers of rappelling? If not, let's discuss the criteria's involved in site selection.

2| (5 Min) SITE SELECTION. When selecting a rappel site consider these three factors.

a There must be a good anchor. As previously taught in NATURAL and ARTIFICIAL ANCHORS, natural anchors are preferred.

b The rappel route down should be as free of obstacles (i.e., vegetation, debris) as possible.

3 There must be suitable loading and unloading platforms. NOTE: The evaluation of a site for the above factors should be made by the rappel point

NCOIC, who should be the most experienced rappeller in the unit.

TRANSITION: Are there any questions over site selection? Once an area has been found that meets these requirements, a rappel site may now be established. Let us now talk about duties of the rappel point NCOIC.

3| (10 Min) DUTIES OF THE RAPPEL POINT NCOIC. Once a rappelling site has been selected, one person will be appointed to each rappel lane as a rappel point NCOIC. These individuals should have experience as rappellers. The rappel point NCOIC has ten duties and responsibilities, which are:

Ensures that the anchor points are sound and that the knots are properly tied.

9 Ensures that loose rock and debris is cleared from the loading platform.

d Allows only one man on the loading platform at a time and ensures that the rappel point is run in an orderly manner.

d Ensures that each man is properly prepared for the particular rappel; i.e. gloves on, sleeves down, helmet secured, rappel seat tied correctly and secured properly.

9 Attaches the rappeller to the rope and ensures the rappeller knows the proper braking position for that particular rappel.

f Ensures that the proper commands or signals are used.

g. Dispatches each man down the rope.

h The rappel point NCOIC will be the last man down the rope.

9 The rappel point NCOIC will ensure that the ropes are inspected after every 50 rappels.

j The rappel point NCOIC will maintain a rope log.

TRANSITION: Before we go any further are there any questions over the duties of the rappel point NCOIC? We will now discuss the different types of rappels taught here at MWTC.

4 (5 Min) TYPES/USE. The three types of rappels and when they are preferred to be used are:

3 Hasty Rappel. It is used when carrying loads down moderate slopes.

¡9 Seat-Shoulder Rappel. It is used for heavily laden troops over vertical to near vertical cliff faces.

3 Seat-Hip Rappel. It is used when carrying loads over vertical to near vertical faces. TRANSITION: Are there any questions on the different types of rappels? Next we will discuss how each of these rappels are used.

5 (5 Min) HASTY RAPPEL. The hasty rappel is the easiest type of rappel to prepare for. It requires no equipment other than a rope and gloves.

Q Conduct. A hasty rappel is conducted in the following manner:

H^Sleeves will be rolled down and gloves will be put on.

'ace slightly sideways.

lace the rappel rope across your back, grasping it with both hands, palms forward, and arms extended.

)The hand nearest the anchor is the guide hand. The hand farthest from the anchor is the brake hand.

ean out at a moderate angle to the slope.

escend down the hill facing half sideways, taking small steps and continually looking downhill while leading with the brake hand.

'eet should not cross and the downhill foot should lead at all times. b Braking. The steps for braking during a hasty rappel are as follows:

»ring the lower (brake) hand across the front of the chest to brake. At the same time, turn to face up toward the anchor point.

Shoulder Rappel

HASTY RAPPEL

TRANSITION: Are there any questions about the technique of the hasty rappel? Now let us discuss the seat-shoulder rappel.

6 (5 Min) SEAT-SHOULDER RAPPEL. The seat-shoulder rappel relies on friction as the main effort of controlling the descent. It is very efficient for men with heavy packs because it provides support for heavy loads on the back.

a. Conduct. A seat-shoulder rappel is conducted in the following manner:

ut on your rappel-seat, roll down your sleeves and put on your gloves.

NOTE: To avoid causing a possible injury, it is advised that the rappel seat be constructed at the rear of the rappel site loading platform. If the rappel seat is worn for too long, the rappel seat could loosen up enough to cause you to slip out of your seat while rappelling.

^^Taking slack from the standing (anchor) end of the rope, make one wrap with the rope around the body of the carabiner and back through the gate.

nsure that the locking nut of the carabiner is fastened to lock the carabiner closed.

NOTE: If you are using only one rope to rappel with due to the tactical situation or equipment availability, the procedures are the same, EXCEPT the individual will make two wraps around the body of the carabiner instead of one.

Take the rope across your chest, over your left shoulder, diagonally across your pack and down to the right (brake) hand.

[^^Descend by walking down the cliff using the braking procedure to control the rate of descent. Look under your brake arm for possible obstacles to avoid.

9 Braking. The steps for braking during a seat-shoulder rappel are as follows:

ace directly uphill while bringing the brake hand across the chest.

TRANSITION: Are there any questions concerning the seat-shoulder rappel? If not, let us discuss the seat-hip rappel.

Q (10 Min) SEAT-HIP RAPPEL. The seat-hip rappel is the most commonly used rappel. a. Conduct. A seat-hip rappel is conducted in the following manner:

)Ensure that the locking nut of the carabiner is fastened to lock the carabiner closed.

SEAT-HIP RAPPEL

NOTE: If you are using only one rope to rappel with due to the tactical situation or equipment availability, the procedures are the same, EXCEPT the individual will make two wraps around the body of the carabiner instead of one.

^^The rappeller will grasp the running end of the rope with the brake (right) hand, palm down and turned slightly inboard, near the hip.

RAPPELLER WITH BAKE HAND ON ROPE

El Braking. The steps in braking for a seat-hip rappel are as follows:

|Grasp the rope tightly with the brake hand.

Take the brake hand and place it in the small of the back. This will create enough friction to stop all momentum.

NOTE: At no time will you bound or jump while you are descending. You "walk down" the cliff face using the proper braking procedure to control your rate of descent.

TRANSITION: Now that we have discussed the hasty rappel, seat- shoulder rappel and the seat-hip rappel, are there any questions? Let's now talk about the safety factors of the first man down.

(5 Min) SAFETY OF THE FIRST MAN DOWN. To ensure the safety of the first man down, the rappeller will:

a. Before deploying the ropes, tie the two ends of the ropes together with an overhand knot. 3 Tie a friction knot on the standing end of the rappel rope with a Prusik cord.

Rappelling With Prusik
SAFETY PRUSIK

Attach the rappel ropes to the harness's hard point with a locking carabiner.

Attach the Prusik cord to the harness's hard point with a locking carabiner. This cord is also referred to as a safety Prusik.

RAPPELLER WITH SAFETY PRUSIK

NOTE; If the Safety Prusik is too short, it can be extended with a web runner.

TRANSITION: We've just discussed the safety of the first man down, are there any questions? Now let's talk about the duties of the first man down.

9| (10 Min) DUTIES OF THE FIRST MAN DOWN. The first man down the rope has specific duties. They are as follows:

y Selects a smooth route down for the ropes.

b Clears the route of loose rocks and debris.

Q The first man down will untie the overhand knot and straighten the ropes out once he reaches the bottom.

d The first man down belays the next man down the rope. There are two methods of belaying the next man down. The method used will be decided upon the restriction of the unloading platform.

(1) Confined unloading platform:

WflThe belay man will stand facing the cliff face, arms up with palms facing upward and over lapping. The rope will pass through the opening of the over lapping hand's thumb and index fingers.

¡¡To stop a fallen rappeller, the belay man will grab the rope with closed fists and pull straight down bringing the forearms parallel to the deck.

(2) Open unloading platform:

holding the ropes firmly as in a standing hip belay.

holding the ropes firmly as in a standing hip belay.

e. Take charge of personnel as they arrive at the bottom to include appointing a belay man.

TRANSITION: Now that we have discussed the duties of the first man down, are there any questions? Next we will discuss the individual rappelling commands.

ACT (5 Min) RAPPELLING COMMANDS. In order to conduct rappelling operations safely, it is essential that everyone understands the sequence of events. The following voice commands or rope tugs will be utilized:

TRANSITION: Are there any questions about the rappelling commands or rope tugs? If not, let us discuss the possibility of tying off.

(10 Min) TYING-OFF. Occasionally, it may be necessary to stop during a rappel before reaching the bottom of a cliff. The following sequence is used:

a. The commands used in tying-off are as listed below:

S The procedure used when tying-off is as follows:

S The procedure used when tying-off is as follows:

over the standing end. He then takes up a bight from the running end about two feet long and pulls it over the standing end and under the running end, forming a half hitch.

8EHe pulls the half hitch tightly against the guide hand.

^^¡He works the half hitch down snugly against the carabiner while maintaining contact with the guide hand as long as possible.

NOTE: A loose half hitch could bind into the carabiner causing difficulties in clearing the knot out. Make sure that the first half hitch is dressed down tightly before moving it against the carabiner.

lace another half hitch above the one already tied.

Q^iTo untie, reverse the steps. Remove the safety half hitch, then shrink the first half hitch down to a small loop by grabbing the running end of both ropes and pulling them straight out to the left. Place your right hand in the middle of the two bights until they are snug on all four fingers. Then remove one finger and make the bights snug on three fingers. Repeat this process until it's down to one finger and both the bights are equal.

fl^^Now, grasp the running end with both hands and smartly jerk the running end of the ropes upward to pop the small loop out from the first half hitch. From this position, keep the guide hand around both of the ropes next to the carabiner; step back over the rope so that the running end is to your right side. Grab just the running end with your brake hand and quickly set the brake behind the small of your back then, readjust you guide hand onto the standing end. You now should be in the seat-hip rappel position.

NOTE: The wraps may bind up some after untying, where no further movement down is possible. To alleviate this, keep the brake on and force your body weight down to pop the wraps in the carabiner back to their intended position and then continue on with the rappel.

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The rappeller gives the command "Lane #, on rappel."

The belayer takes up the slack and gives the command "Lane #, on belay."

The rappeller resumes to rappel down.

TRANSITION: Are there any questions over tying off? We will now discuss how to perform different types of rescues during rappelling operations.

QQ| (5 Min) RESCUE TECHNIQUES. When conducting rappelling operations, the possibility of a rappeller getting caught on the rope due to either his clothing or equipment can occur. There are two types of rescues that can be performed to free the rappeller from this situation.

The Self-Rescue Technique.

^^After realizing that you are caught up on the rope, check with your belay man to ensure that he has a solid brake set.

flUsing a safety Prusik, tie a friction knot onto the rappel rope approximately an arms length above the area that is fouled. Anchor the other end of your safety Prusik to your rappel seats hard point. This is the same technique used as discussed earlier with the first man down the rope.

^^Work the friction knot up until there is no tension on the rappel device. This will give you the necessary slack to free the malfunction.

^^Once you have corrected the problem, continue to rappel down using the first man down method.

3 The Buddy Rescue Technique. This method is used when the rappeller is unable to correct the problem by himself.

rescuer will rappel down on another rope to the disabled rappeller and tie-off.

^^The rescuer will then establish a safety Prusik onto the victim as taught in the self-rescue technique.

^^After clearing the malfunction, continue with rappelling operations.

Q Rappelling Casualty Rescue. There are three different methods in which to get an injured rappeller to the bottom.

^^The first method is to allow the belay man to lower the casualty by slowly releasing the tension on the rappel rope.

)The rescuer will rappel down using another rope. Once the rescuer gets to the casualty, the rescuer will have his belay man brake him off, enabling the rescuer to use both hands.

L^^If necessary, the rescuer will perform the basic first aid needed. Once the casualty is ready to be lowered, the rescuer will call down to both of the belay men to simultaneously lower both men. The rescuer will hold onto the casualty the entire way down so that he doesn't bounce off the rock face.

^The third method is called a tandem rappel. Its used to rescue a casualty who has sustained an injury serious enough that he cannot operate the rappel device himself and requires the assistance of a second rappeller. This type of rescue can be conducted from the top of the cliff face or while on rappel, depending on where the injury occurred.

MflIf the injury occurs while on top of the cliff face, the following steps should be taken:

Q Take either a long sling rope or Prusik cord and tie a figure-eight knot offset so that one length of the cord is longer then the other.

21 Tie a figure-eight knot at each end.

3 Take a rappel device and attach it to the offset figure-eight loop with a carabiner and attach it to the rappel rope.

4 Next, attach the casualty's hard point to the short end of the sling rope/Prusik cord and the rescuer to the other end.

5 The rescuer will then utilize a safety Prusik in the same method as the first man down technique, except that the friction knot will be tied below the rappelling device and controlled with the brake hand.

The rescuer will then maneuver himself under the casualty to provide assistance and support.

Q At this point you are ready to rappel both rescuer and casualty at the same time.

NOTE: Your rappel device should be far enough in front of you so that the casualty will not be able to reach it.

i^^If the injury occurs during the rappel, the following steps are taken:

Q The rescuer will preset the same system on a separate rappel rope and rappel down to the casualty.

2 The rescuer will then take the short end of the sling rope and attach it to the casualty's hard point.

With a knife, the rescuer will cut the casualty's rappel rope away. Rappel down to the bottom of the cliff face.

NOTE: THIS IS THE ONLY TIME THAT A KNIFE WILL BE USED DURING A RAPPEL. EXTREME CAUTION SHOULD BE USED. IT IS NOT TO BE DONE IN TRAINING, BUT ONLY DURING AN ACTUAL RESCUE AND AS A LAST RESORT.

TRANSITION: Are there any question over rescue techniques? Let's now discuss how to make our rappel installation retrievable.

Q2 (10 Min) RETRIEVABLE RAPPELS. Once a unit has rappelled down a vertical obstacle, it may be necessary to retrieve the rope(s). Depending on the height of the obstacle either one or two ropes will used to construct the rappel lane.

a. One-Rope Retrievable Rappel:

^^Find the middle of the rope and place it directly behind a suitable anchor point.

middle of the rope is directly behind the anchor point, rappel down the rope. If point NCO is an assault climber, use the stitch plate/ATC-type belay device to straighten the ropes.

^^The rope is then retrieved by pulling on either end of the rope.

b Two-Rope Retrievable Rappel. This type of system is identical to the one rope retrievable rappel except for a few considerations.

knot will be placed out of the system when securing the carabiner to the ropes. This will prevent total failure of the system if the knot should fail.

knot will be placed out of the system when securing the carabiner to the ropes. This will prevent total failure of the system if the knot should fail.

joining knot as close to the vertical obstacle's edge as possible. This will prevent the knot from possibly getting caught up while retrieving.

joining knot as close to the vertical obstacle's edge as possible. This will prevent the knot from possibly getting caught up while retrieving.

b^^The last man down will then place a carabiner on the rope below the knot. This will enable him to know which line to pull for retrieval. If the last man down is an assault climber, use the stitch plate/ATC-type belay device to straighten the ropes.

TRANSITION: Now that we have covered retrievable rappels, are there any questions? As Marines we are required to carry a variety of weapons and equipment into combat. Let us discuss considerations for our equipment so that it doesn't enable our rappelling efforts.

H (3 Min) EQUIPMENT. Equipment should be worn in accordance with unit SOP. The unit has the responsibility to determine which methods it feels are most beneficial to the mission.

Weapons should be worn across shoulder; muzzle down and away from the brake hand with a tight sling securely attached to the weapon. Weapons should also be dummy corded to the individuals.

TRANSITION: Are there any questions over equipment at this time? If you have none for me, then I have some for you.

PRACTICE (CONC)

3 Students will execute all rappel considerations outlined. PROVIDE HELP (CONC)

The instructors will assist the students when necessary. OPPORTUNITY FOR QUESTIONS (3 Min)

1 QUESTIONS FROM THE CLASS

2 QUESTIONS TO THE CLASS

Q What are the three criteria involved in site selection for a rappel site?

(2) The route down the cliff face should be as free of obstacles as possible.

(3) There must be suitable loading and unloading platforms.

Q| What are the three types of rappels?

0 (1) Hasty Rappel

(2) Seat-Shoulder Rappel

(3) Seat-Hip Rappel

Q| When would the hasty rappel be the desired type of rappel to use? A When carrying loads down a moderate slope.

SUMMARY (2 Min)

3 During this period of instruction we have covered site selection, how to establish a rappel site and how it should be run, which included duties of the rappel point NCOIC and duties of the first man down a rope. We've also covered how to establish a retrievable rappel and the three types of rappels, as well as how to tie-off.

a Those of you with IRF's please fill them out at this time and turn them in to the instructor.

We will now take a short break.

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