## Introduce Learning Objectives

In a summer mountainous environment, conduct military aid climbing, in accordance with the references. 4. METHOD MEDIA. The material in this lesson will be presented by lecture and demonstration method. You will practice what you have learned in upcoming field training exercises. Those of you with IRF's please fill them out at the end of this period of instruction. 5. EVALUATION. This period of instruction is a lesson purpose class. TRANSITION Are there any...

EXAMPLE If you have a log that weighs 100 lbs. And you need to lift it two feet, using a 2 1 ratio system, the formula is 3 The frictionless pulley does not alter the product of force and distance. There is another limitation on the definition of work. Only the force in the direction of motion counts. What does this mean The angle on which you direct the pull of your system will determine the actual advantage that it will receive. REFER TO NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL ANCHORS TRANSITION Are there any...

## Min Use Of An Aframe

If you have to gain artificial height at the top and there is no suitable tree branch rock etc., then the A-frame logs, sling ropes and carabiners need to be moved to the top of the cliff. This can be accomplished in the following manner The climbers will haul the logs to the top and construct their portion of the installation. NOTE The A-frame is constructed in the same manner as taught in A-FRAMES. The suspension traverse rope is located in the upper V apex of the...

## Example

10 meter run out above a belay on a rock face results in a 20 meter fall. 10 x 2 20 10 2 Fall Factors, the highest Fall Factor. Example 2 10 meter run out above a belay on a rock face, but with a piece of protection placed at 5 meters resulting in a 10 meter fall. 5 x 2 10 meter run out above a belay on a rock face, but with a piece of protection placed at 7.5 meters resulting in a 5 meter fall. 10 - 7.5 2.5 x 2 5 9 The following table shows the relationship of Fall Factor and Impact Force for...

## Min Preparing The Mack For Use

1 Use the electric rope cutter to cut whip one 15-18 foot sling rope for each Marine in the company, using the dynamic rope. Each Marine will also receive one non-locking carabiner and one locking carabiner. NOTE Finish one complete spool before cutting another spool. 2 Cut the static rope for the mission at hand. Some spools are already 300 feet and 165 feet 50m others may be 600-foot spools. Cut one-inch tubular tape for static anchor cord 15-25 foot lengths . When static rope becomes...

## Info

Given the proper format and needed information, prepare a cliff report, in accordance with the references. 4 METHOD MEDIA. The material in this lesson will be presented by lecture. You will practice what you have learned during upcoming field training exercises. 5 EVALUATION. You will be tested later in this course by performance evaluation. TRANSITION If there are no questions, lets start by defining exactly what reconnaissance is. Q 5 Min RECONNAISSANCE. Conducting a cliff assault is a...

## Evaluation

SML - You will be tested by a written exam. b. ACC - You will be tested by a written exam. c. SMO - You will be tested by an oral exam. TRANSITION Does anyone have any questions on the purpose, learning objectives, how the class will be taught, and how you will be evaluated We will begin by discussing the ropes used 1. 10 Min ROPES. All ropes used in the military must meet UIAA standards or U. S. Federal Test Standard 191A. Most ropes have a 5-year shelf life and maximum 2-year service life....

## Min Climbing Procedures

The route is visually inspected for steepness, soil composition, rock outcroppings, ice and snow patches, and availability of anchor's. Based on this reconnaissance, the climbers construct a climbing rack best suited to the proposed climbing route. 9 Normal belay procedures are used. The belayer establishes the bottom of the climb using available anchors supplemented by a 5 point gripfast. He will tie into the end of the rope and into the gripfast. 9 Once the belay is...

## Min Climbers Responsibilities

The climber ensures that the belayer is anchored and on belay, by use of commands or prearranged signals prior to beginning the climb. b. The climber will not out climb the belayer this will cause slack in the rope between the belayer and the climber. c. Avoid placing excess pressure weight on belay man. d. Weapons will be worn across shoulder, muzzle down and to the left, with a tight sling securely attached to the weapon. TRANSITION Are there any questions over the climber's...

## Min Considerations For The Care Of Rope

The rope should not be stepped on or dragged on the ground unnecessarily. Small particles of dirt will get into and through the sheath causing unnecessary wear to the rope within. b. The rope should never come in contact with sharp edges of any type. Nylon rope is easily cut, particularly when under tension. If a rope must be used around an edge which could cut it, then that edge must be padded or buffed using fire hose if available, or several small sticks. c. Keep the rope as dry as...

## Min Techniques Used In Military Aid Climbing

Some of the simplest forms of aid climbing are known as Hang Dogging or French Free in the civilian climbing community. Hang Dogging involves clipping into a piece of protection, having the belayer take in all the slack and locking the belay device off so the climber can rest. b. French Free involves using protection to pull up or to stand up on. The most basic method is using aid for one move. 1 Set in a piece of pro and clip an etrier into it. 2 Step into the etrier and slowly transfer...

## Min Use Of The Grapnel

A five point grapnel can be useful in steep earth climbing. With its twenty feet of knotted cord, it provides handholds where there may otherwise be none. Short, sheer faces and overhangs have fewer holds, thus providing ideal situations for grapnel use. d To use the grapnel, the climber unwinds his grapnel line, secures it to himself, then throws it above himself over a ledge, cliff edge, or other near horizontal feature. Care must be taken to throw it to one side or the other so that if it...

## Min Retrieving The One Rope Bridge

9 Before the bridge NCO sends the last Marine to cross, they must make the bridge retrievable. b The first step is to break down the mechanical advantage, ensuring the braking knot is set before doing so. The system will be broken down until the bridging line is attached only to the brake knot. 9 They will now take the rope around to the back of the anchor, and tie a slip figure 8, with the loop of the slip 8, take it and attach it to the bridging line just in back of the braking knot with a...

## Bibliography Of References

TC 90-6-1, Military Mountaineering b. USMC Battle Skills Training Book c. Mountaineering, The Freedom of the Hills, 6th Edition, The Mountaineers, Seattle WA 1996. d. MCRP 3-35.1, Commander's Guide to Cold Weather Operations e. MCRP 3-35.1A, Small Unit Leader's Guide to Cold Weather Operations f. MCRP 3-35.2B Military Mountaineering g. MCWP 3-35.2, Mountain Operations h. The Royal Marine's Mountain and Arctic Warfare Handbook, 1972 Marine Assault Climber's Kit a. Marine Corps Stocklist,...

## G Evaluation

A MLC - You will be tested later in the course by written and performance evaluations on this period of instruction. b ACC - You will be tested later in the course by written on this period of instruction and by performance evaluations during the cliff assault. d SMO - You will be tested by a verbal and performance evaluation on T- 11. TRANSITION Are there any questions over the purpose, learning objectives, how the class will be taught, or how you will be evaluated First, let's discuss why...

## Hexcentric Placement

Placing protection is the skill of establishing points of protection along the route by using natural features or by lodging artificial devices in the rock. The leader clips the rope through each piece of protection, while the belayer at the bottom of the pitch waits in position to hold the leader if he should fall. This technique makes lead climbing safely possible. Since carabiners are used in all protection placements, the novice should learn some general principles as for...

## Min Dangers To Be Avoided When Selecting A Route

These impediments can make an otherwise easy route almost impassable. b Rocks overgrown with moss, lichen, or grass. These areas can be very treacherous when wet or dry. 9 Tufts of grass and small bushes growing from loosely packed soil. These normally appear firm, but can give way suddenly when they are pulled or stepped on. d Gullies that are subject to rock fall. If you have to use a gully that has evidence of rock fall in it, then try to stay to the sides. e. The most...

## Min Wearing Of The Sit Harness

9 First, disconnect the fastex buckle at the rear of the harness. g Hold the harness in front of you, put your feet through the leg loops ensuring that the buckles on the leg loops are outboard, on your thighs. 9 Fasten the waist belt into the buckle, ensuring that it is a tight but comfortable fit. You must ensure that the waist belt is threaded back through the buckle, this action locks the waist belt to the buckle. Failure to do this will cause the waist belt to slip through the buckle when...

## Q Min Site Selection

9 The two criteria for site selection for a one-rope bridge are The anchors must be close enough for the 150 foot coil to reach both near side and far side anchors. Keep in mind that it will take approximately 1 3 of the 150 foot rope for tightening and anchoring of the bridge. 2 5 Min DISTANCE ESTIMATION. The follow methods can be used to determine the distance between anchor points Azimuth Method. Shoot an azimuth to a point on the far side of the intended obstacle to cross. Then move LEFT or...

## Min Considerations For Party Climbing

3 A two man climbing team is faster than a three-man team is. b The strongest climber of a team always takes the hardest pitch. 9 Climbers will tie into their harnesses with a retrace figure-of-eight they will not untie until they are off the climb, 10 ft back away from the cliff edge, or secured to an anchor point. d. As you climb you must use the correct climbing commands to prevent confusion. 3 Where possible, the leader should use natural anchors for protection. 9 The leader must not climb...

## Min Establishing A Belay Stance From The Bottom

G Belaying from the bottom is commonly referred to as a Yo-Yo or Sling Shot belay. This system can be constructed for either a direct or indirect belay. TRANSITION Are there any questions concerning the establishment of a bottom belay stance for a top rope Let's discuss the climber's responsibilities.

## Min Inspection Of Rope

All ropes have to be inspected before, during, and after all operations. Kernmantle rope is harder to inspect than a laid rope. I.e. green line. The Assault Climber must know what to look and feel for when inspecting a rope. Any of the below listed deficiencies can warrant the retirement of a rope. xcessive Fraying. Indicates broken sheath bundles or PIC breakage. xposed Core Fibers. Indicates severe sheath damage. When you can see the inner core fibers Uniformity of Diameter Size. May indicate...

## Min Nylon Webbing

The type of nylon webbing available is tubular. Tubular nylon webbing is very strong and flexible. All rules that apply to nylon rope apply to tubular nylon webbing. The size of nylon webbing used is 1 1 inch tubular nylon. Tensile strength approximately 4,000 - 4,500 lbs., depending on the manufacturer. b. Pre-sewn Spectra Runners. Tensile strength approximately 5,500 lbs. NOTE These are minimum strengths. Some manufactures make even stronger webbing. TRANSITION We have just discussed...

## Min Terms Used In Rope Work

A simple bend in the rope in which the rope does not cross itself. b Loop. A simple bend in the rope in which the rope does cross itself. d Half Hitch. A loop which runs around an object in such a manner as to bind on itself. d Standing End. The part of the rope which is anchored and cannot be used, also called the static end. e. Running End. The free end of the rope which can be used. f. Lay. The same as the twist of the rope. Applies only to hawser laid ropes, such as manila....

## Min Construction Of The Ratio Systems

Construction of a 1 1 ratio system 1 Attach the pulley to a suitable anchor point. 2 Anchor one end of the rope to the load. 3 Run the other end of the rope through the pulley. 4 To equalize the load, pull the rope until there is tension on the system. If the load weighs 100 lbs., theoretically it should only take 100 lbs. of force to lift the load, but due to friction it may require 110 lbs. of force to equalize the load. To lift the load one foot, you will have to pull the rope one foot. 5...